Location: Ivor Wynne Centre, Room E210
Phone: 905 525 9140 ext. 24465
Website: Exercise Metabolism Research Group
The maintenance of a metabolically active skeletal muscle mass is to a great extent underappreciated, particularly where optimal health is concerned. Skeletal muscle, besides its obvious role in locomotion, is a highly important thermogenic (i.e., energy consuming) tissue and the prime determinant of our basal metabolic rate, which for most of us is the largest single contributor to daily energy expenditure. Hence, declines in skeletal muscle mass can lead to increases in body fat mass. Because of its oxidative capacity (i.e., mitochondrial content) skeletal muscle is also a large site of fat oxidation, potentially playing a role in maintaining lipoprotein (cholesterol) and triglyceride homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also, mostly by virtue of its mass, the primary site of blood glucose disposal; hence, maintaining skeletal muscle mass would also play a role in reducing risk for development of type II diabetes. Finally, the decline in maximal aerobic capacity with age, and with other muscular wasting conditions, including weight loss, has also been found to be due, to a large degree, to a decline in skeletal muscle mass and skeletal muscle quality. My research program has at its centre the following research question, what factors serve to maintain, increase, or decrease skeletal muscle mass? In addition, my research does not only address the absolute mass of skeletal muscle, but also its quality as assessed by the quantity of force it can generate, but also by the metabolic activity of various enzymes and energy consuming pathways.
We use a human model of resistance or aerobic exercise, immobilization, or aging to study the processes that govern: muscle accretion, in the case of resistance exercise; atrophy, in the case of immobilization; and sarcopenia, in the case of aging. In addition, my research group has studied the interaction of feeding different protein composition and varied meal timing on the processes regulating hypertrophy and disuse atrophy. We employ stable isotope tracers of amino acids to metabolically trace the fate of ingested proteins. Muscle biopsies provide us with mechanistic information regarding processes that regulate protein accretion and degradation. We use Western blotting, RT-PCR, histological, and immunohistochemical methods to examine these mechanisms. I am also very interested in conditions in which muscle wasting occurs, particularly in the elderly.
- S.M. Phillips. Dietary Protein Requirements and Adaptive Advantages in Athletes. Br. J. Nutr. 108(S2): S158-S167, 2012.
- S.M. Phillips. Nutrient-rich meat proteins in offsetting age-related muscle loss. Meat Sci. 92(3): 174-178, 2012.
- N.A. Burd, C.J. Mitchell, T.A. Churward-Venne, and S.M. Phillips. Bigger weights may not beget bigger muscles: evidence from acute muscle protein synthetic responses after resistance exercise. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 37(3): 551-554, 2012.
- T.A. Churward-Venne, N.A. Burd, and S.M. Phillips. Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise: strategies to enhance anabolism. Nutr. Metab. 9(1): 40, 2012.
- L. Breen and S. M. Phillips. Nutrient interaction for optimal protein anabolism in resistance exercise. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care. 15(3): 226-232, 2012.
- D.R. Moore, J. Areta, V.G. Coffey, T. Stellingwerff, S.M. Phillips, L.M. Burke, M. Cleroux, J.P. Godin, and J.A. Hawley. Daytime pattern of post-exercise protein intake affects whole-body protein turnover in resistance-trained males. Nutr. Metab. 9(1): 91, 2012.
- Y. Yang, L. Breen, N. A. Burd, A.R. Josse, A. J. Hector, T.A. Churchward-Venne, M. A. Tarnopolsky and S. M. Phillips. Dose-response of myofibrillar protein synthesis and whole-body protein turnover to protein ingestion with and without resistance exercise in older adults. Br. J. Nutr. 108: 1780-1788, 2012.
- L.M. Burke, J.A. Hawley, M.L. Ross, D.R. Moore, S.M. Phillips, G.R. Slater, T. Stellingwerff, K.D. Tipton, A.P. Garnham, V.G. Coffey. Pre-exercise Aminoacidemia and Muscle Protein Synthesis after Resistance Exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 44(10): 1968-1977, 2012.
- N.A. Burd, Y.Yang,D.R. Moore, J.E. Tang, M.A. Tarnopolsky, and S.M. Phillips. Greater stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis with ingestion of whey protein isolate versus micellar casein at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men. Br. J. Nutr. 108: 958-962, 2012.
- D.M. Camera, D.W. West, N.A. Burd, S.M. Phillips, A.P. Garnham, J.A. Hawley, V.G. Coffey. Low Muscle Glycogen Concentration Does Not Suppress the Anabolic Response to Resistance Exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 113(2): 206-214, 2012.
- K.A. Martin Ginis, D. McEwan, A.R. Josse, and S.M. Phillips. Body image change in obese and overweight women enrolled in a weight-loss intervention: the importance of perceived versus actual physical changes. Body Image. 9(3): 311-317, 2012.
- C.J. Mitchell, T.A. Churchward-Venne, D.W. West, N.A. Burd, L.Breen, S.K. Baker, and S.M. Phillips. Resistance exercise load does not determine training-mediated hypertrophic gains in young men. J.Appl.Physiol. 113(1): 71-77, 2012.
- Y. Yang, T.A Churchward-Venne, N. A. Burd, L. Breen, M. A. Tarnopolsky and S. M. Phillips. Myofibrillar protein synthesis following ingestion of soy protein isolate at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men. Nutr. Metab. 9(1): 57, 2012.
- T.A. Churchward-Venne, N.A. Burd, C.J. Mitchell, D.W. West, A. Philp, G.R. Marcotte, S.K. Baker, K. Baar, S.M. Phillips. Supplementation of a suboptimal protein dose with leucine or essential amino acids: effects on myofibrillar protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in men. J.Physiol. 590(11): 2751-2765, 2012.
- D.W. West, N.A. Burd, T.A. Churchward-Venne, D.M. Camera, C.J. Mitchell, S.K. Baker, J.A. Hawley, V.G. Coffey, S.M. Phillips. Sex-based comparisons of myofibrillar protein synthesis after resistance exercise in the fed state. J. Appl. Physiol. 112(11): 1805-1813, 2012.
- D.W. West and S.M. Phillips. Associations of exercise-induced hormone profiles and gains in strength and hypertrophy in a large cohort after weight training. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 112(7): 2693-2702, 2012.
- D.R. Moore, M. Young, and S.M. Phillips. Similar increases in muscle size and strength in young men after training with maximal shortening or lengthening contractions when matched for total work. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 112(4): 1587-1592, 2012.
- N.A. Burd, R.J. Andrews, D.W. West, J.P. Little, A.J. Cochran, A.J. Hector, J.G. Cashaback, M.J. Gibala, J.R. Potvin, S.K. Baker, and S.M. Phillips. Muscle time under tension during resistance exercise stimulates differential muscle protein sub-fractional synthetic responses in men. J. Physiol. 590(2): 351-362, 2012.
- A.R. Nelson, S.M. Phillips, T. Stellingwerff, S. Rezzi, S.J. Bruce, I. Breton, A. Thorimbert, P.A. Guy, J. Clarke, S. Broadbent, D.S. Rowlands. A Protein-Leucine Supplement Increases BCAA and Nitrogen Turnover but not Performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 44(1): 57-68, 2012
- A.R. Josse, S.A. Atkinson, M.A. Tarnopolsky, and S.M. Phillips. Diets Higher in Dairy Foods and Dietary Protein Support Bone Health during Diet- and Exercise-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Premenopausal Women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 97(1): 251-260, 2012.
|PhD||University of Waterloo||1995|
|Mark von Allmen|
|Amy Hector (Medical Sciences)|
|Post Doc||Michaela De Vries|