Louis Schmidt

Louis A. Schmidt, Ph.D. (Maryland)

Director, Child Emotion Laboratory
Fellow, Association for Psychological Science

con_address.pngDepartment of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1, Canada

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con_tel.png905-525-9140 | ext. 23028 (office) 24798 (lab)


Research Interests & Expertise

  • temperament, affect processing and regulation
  • developmental and individual differences
  • developmental psychophysiology and psychopathology
  • brain and social-affective development in clinical and non-clinical populations
  • impact of adverse early life events on brain-behavior development


Selected Recent Representative Publications

*Names of students and trainees are underlined.


Temperament, Anxiety, & Psychophysiology:  Studies of Typical Development

Tang, A., Lahat, A., Crowley, M.J., Wu, J., & Schmidt, L.A. (In press). Neurodevelopmental differences to social exclusion:  An event-related

neural oscillation study of children, adolescents, and adults.  Emotion.


Poole, K.L., & Schmidt, L.A. (In press).  Smiling through the shyness:  The adaptive function of positive affect in shy children.  Emotion.

Poole, K.L., Van Lieshout, R.J., McHolm, A.E., Cunningham, C.E., & Schmidt, L.A. (In press).  Trajectories of social anxiety in children: Influence of child cortisol reactivity and parental social anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.

Poole, K.L., Santesso, D.L.,Van Lieshout, R.J., & Schmidt, L.A. (2018). Trajectories of frontal brain activity and socioemotional development in children. Developmental Psychobiology, 60, 353-363.

Schmidt. L.A., & Poole, K.L. (2018).  Children’s shyness and frontal brain maturation.  Personality and Individual Differences, 127, 44-48.

Tang, A., Van Lieshout, R.J., Lahat, A., Duku, E., Boyle, M.H., Saigal, S., & Schmidt, L.A. (2017).  Shyness trajectories across the first four decades predict mental health outcomes.  Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45, 1621-1633.

Tang, A., Santesso, D.L., Segalowitz, S.J., & Schmidt, L.A. (2016). Distinguishing shyness and sociability in children:  An ERP study.  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 142, 291-311.

Tang, A., Santesso, D.L., Segalowitz, S.J., Schulkin, J., & Schmidt, L.A. (2016). Distinguishing shyness and sociability in adults: An event-related electrocortical-neuroendocrine study.  Biological Psychology, 119, 200-209.

Miskovic, V., Moscovitch, D.A., Santesso, D.L., McCabe, R.E., Antony, M.M., & Schmidt, L.A. (2011). Changes in EEG cross-frequency coupling during cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder. Psychological Science, 22, 507-516.


Temperament, Anxiety, & Psychophysiology:  Studies of Atypical Development

Krzeczkowski, J., Schmidt, L.A., Savoy, C., Saigal, S., & Van Lieshout, R.J. (In press).  Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry in extremely low birth

weight adult survivors: Links to antenatal corticosteriod exposure and psychopathology.  Clinical Neurophysiology.


Xu, R., Poole, K.L., Van Lieshout, R.J., Saigal, S., & Schmidt, L.A. (In press). Shyness and sociability among extremely low birth weight

survivors in the 3rd and 4th decades of life: Associations with relationship status. Journal of Personality.

Van Lieshout, R.J., Ferro, M., Schmidt, L.A., Boyle, M., Morrison, K., Saigal, S., & Mathewson, K.J. (In press).  Trajectories of psychopathology in extremely low birth weight survivors from early adolescence to adulthood: A 20 year longitudinal study.  Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

Lahat, A., Tang, A., Tanaka, M., Van Lieshout, R.J., MacMillian, H., & Schmidt, L.A.  (2018).  Longitudinal associations among child maltreatment, resting frontal electroencephalogram asymmetry, and adolescent shyness.  Child Development, 89, 746-757.

Tang, A., Miskovic, V., Lahat, A., Tanaka, M., MacMillan, H., Van Lieshout, R.J., & Schmidt, L.A. (2018). Trajectories of resting frontal brain activity and psychopathology in female adolescents exposed to childhood maltreatment.  Developmental Psychobiology, 60, 67-77.

Van Lieshout, R.J., Boyle, M.H., Favotto, L., Krzeczkowski, J.E., Savoy, C., Saigal, S., Morrison, K.M., & Schmidt, L.A. (2018). Impact of extremely low birth weight status on risk and resilience for depression and anxiety in adulthood.  Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 59, 596-603.

Lahat, A., Van Lieshout, R.J., Mathewson, K.J.,MacKillop, J., Saigal, S., Morrison, K.M., Boyle, M.H., & Schmidt, L.A. (2017).  Extremely low birth weight babies grown up: Gene-environment interaction predicts internalizing problems in the 3rd and 4th decades of life.  Development and Psychopathology, 29, 837-843.

Saigal, S., Day, K.L., Van Lieshout, R.J., Schmidt, L.A., Morrison, K.M., & Boyle, M.H. (2016). Health, wealth, social integration, and sexuality of extremely low-birth-weight prematurely born adults in the fourth decade of life.  Journal of the American Medical Association, JAMA Pediatrics, 170, 678-686.

Van Lieshout, R.J., Boyle, M.H., Saigal, S., Morrison, K.M., & Schmidt, L.A. (2015). Mental health of extremely low birth weight survivors in their 30s.  Pediatrics, 135, 452-459.

Fortier, P., Van Lieshout, R.J., Waxman, J.A., Saigal, S., Boyle, M.H., & Schmidt, L.A. (2014). Are orchids left and dandelions right? Frontal brain activation asymmetry and its sensitivity to developmental context. Psychological Science, 25, 1526-1533.


Theoretical, Position, and Review Papers

Chow, C.H.T. Wan, S. Pope, E., Meng, Z., Schmidt, L.A., Buckley, N., & Van Lieshout, R.J. (In press). Audiovisual interventions for parental

preoperative anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  Health Psychology.


Poole, K.L., Tang, A., & Schmidt, L.A. (In press).  The temperamentally shy child as the social adult: An exemplar of multifinality.  In K. Perez-

Edgar & N.A. Fox (Eds.), Behavioral inhibition:  Integrating theory, research, and clinical perspectives.  New York:  Springer Publishers.


Schmidt, L.A., & Poole, K.L. (In press). On the bifurcation of temperamental shyness:  Development, adaptation, and neoteny. 

New Ideas in Psychology.


Schmidt, L.A. (2018).  Understanding temperamental shyness:  Reflections on heterogeneity, context, and function. In Uher, J., et al. Diversity

in action: Exchange of perspectives and reflections on taxonomies of individual differences.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society-

B, Biological Sciences, 383: 20170172, 6-7.

Mathewson, K.J., Chow, C.H.T., Dobson, K.G., Pope, E.I., Schmidt, L.A., & Van Lieshout, R.J. (2017).  Mental health of extremely low birth weight survivors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  Psychological Bulletin, 143, 347-383.

Saigal, S., Van Lieshout, R.J., & Schmidt, L.A. (2017). Why are prospective longitudinal studies needed in preterm behavioral epigenetic research?—Reply. JAMA Pediatrics, 171, 92-93.

Chen, X., & Schmidt, L.A. (2015).  Temperament and personality development. In R. Lerner (Editor-in-Chief), Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science (7th Ed.), In M. Lamb & C. Garcia-Coll (Section Editors), Vol 3, Social and Emotional Development (pp.152-200).  Hoboken, NJ:  Wiley.

Schmidt, L.A., & Miskovic, V. (2013). A new perspective on temperamental shyness: Differential susceptibility to endogenous environmental influences. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7, 141-157.

Miskovic, V., & Schmidt, L.A. (2012). New directions in the study of individual differences in temperament: A brain-body approach to understanding fearful and fearless children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 77(2), 28-38.

Miskovic, V., & Schmidt, L.A. (2012). Social fearfulness in the human brain. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36, 459-478.