Louis Schmidt

Louis A. Schmidt, Ph.D. (Maryland)

Director, Child Emotion Laboratory
Fellow, Association for Psychological Science

con_address.pngDepartment of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1, Canada

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con_tel.png905-525-9140 | ext. 23028 (office) 24798 (lab)


Research Interests & Expertise

  • temperament, affect processing and regulation
  • developmental and individual differences
  • developmental psychophysiology and psychopathology
  • brain and affective development in clinical and non-clinical populations
  • impact of adverse early life events on brain-behavior development


Selected Representative Publications

*Names of student trainees are underlined.

Empirical Papers

  • Tang, A., Santesso, D.L., Segalowitz, S.J., & Schmidt, L.A. (2016). Distinguishing shyness and sociability in children:  An ERP study.  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 142, 291-311.
  • Tang, A., Santesso, D.L., Segalowitz, S.J., Schulkin, J.,  & Schmidt, L.A. (2016). Distinguishing shyness and sociability in adults: An event-related electrocortical-neuroendocrine study.  Biological Psychology, 119, 200-209.
  • Tang, A., Beaton, E.A., Tatham, E., Schulkin, J., Hall, G.B., & Schmidt, L.A. (2016).  Processing of different types of social threat in shyness: Preliminary findings of distinct functional neural connectivity.  Social Neuroscience, 11, 15-37.
  • Tang, A., Beaton, E.A., Schulkin, J., Hall, G.B., & Schmidt, L.A. (2014). Revisiting shyness and sociability: A preliminary investigation of hormone-brain-behavior relations. Frontiers in Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology, 5(1430), 1-11.
  • Fortier, P., Van Lieshout, R.J., Waxman, J.A., Saigal, S., Boyle, M.H., & Schmidt, L.A. (2014). Are orchids left and dandelions right? Frontal brain activation asymmetry and its sensitivity to developmental context. Psychological Science, 25, 1526-1533.
  • Jetha, M.K., Zheng, X., Schmidt, L.A., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2012). Shyness and the first 100 milliseconds of emotional face processing. Social Neuroscience, 7, 74-89.
  • Miskovic, V., Moscovitch, D.A., Santesso, D.L., McCabe, R.E., Antony, M.M., & Schmidt, L.A. (2011). Changes in EEG cross-frequency coupling during cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder. Psychological Science, 22, 507-516.
  • Schmidt, L.A., Fox, N.A., Perez-Edgar, K., & Hamer, D.H. (2009). Linking gene, brain, and behavior: DRD4, frontal asymmetry, and temperament. Psychological Science, 20, 831-837.
  • Beaton, E.A., Schmidt, L.A., Schulkin, J., Antony, M.M., Swinson, R.P., & Hall, G.B. (2008). Different neural responses to stranger and personally familiar faces in shy and bold adults. Behavioral Neuroscience, 122, 704-709.
  • Schmidt, L.A., Cote, K.A., Santesso, D.L., & Milner, C.E. (2003). Frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry during sleep: Stability and its relation to affective style. Emotion, 3, 401-407.
  • Schmidt, L.A., & Trainor, L.J. (2001). Frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) distinguishes valence and intensity of musical emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 15, 487-500.
  • Schmidt, L.A. (1999). Frontal brain electrical activity in shyness and sociability. Psychological Science, 10, 316-320.

Position and Review Papers

  • Chen, X., & Schmidt, L.A. (2015).  Temperament and personality development. In R. Lerner (Editor-in-Chief), Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science (7th Ed.), In M. Lamb & C. Garcia-Coll (Section Editors), Vol 3, Social and Emotional Development (pp.152-200).  Hoboken, NJ:  Wiley.
  • Schmidt, L.A., & Miskovic, V. (2014). Shyness and the electrical activity of the brain: On the interplay between theory and method. In R.J. Coplan & J. Bowker (Eds.), The Handbook of Solitude: Psychological Perspectives on Social Isolation, Social Withdrawal, and Being Alone (pp.51-70). Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Schmidt, L.A., & Miskovic, V. (2013). A new perspective on temperamental shyness: Differential susceptibility to endogenous environmental influences. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7, 141-157.
  • Miskovic, V., & Schmidt, L.A. (2012). New directions in the study of individual differences in temperament: A brain-body approach to understanding fearful and fearless children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 77(2), 28-38.
  • Miskovic, V., & Schmidt, L.A. (2012). Social fearfulness in the human brain. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36, 459-478.
  • Schmidt, L.A., & Buss, A.H. (2010). Understanding shyness: Four questions and four decades of research. In K.R. Rubin & R.J. Coplan (Eds.), The Development of Shyness and Social Withdrawal (pp. 23-41). New York: Guildford Publications.


  • Burack, J.A., & Schmidt, L.A. (Editors).  (2014). Cultural and Contextual Perspectives on Developmental Risk and Well-being (pp. xx-298).  New York:  Cambridge University Press.
  • Schmidt, L.A., & Segalowitz, S.J.  (Editors).  (2008). Developmental Psychophysiology: Theory, Systems, and Methods (pp. xxii-462).  New York:  Cambridge University Press.
  • Schmidt, L.A., & Schulkin, J. (Editors). (1999). Extreme Fear, Shyness, and Social Phobia:  Origins, Biological Mechanisms, and Clinical Outcomes (pp. x-311) (Series in Affective Science).  New York:  Oxford University Press.