Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour

Neurotechnology and Neuroplasticity Lab


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Kinley, I., Porteous, M., Levy, Y. and Becker, S. (accepted), Visual perspective as a two-dimensional construct in episodic future thought. to appear in: Consciousness and Cognition

Becker, S. (accepted), Memory for space. To appear in: M.J. Kahana & A.D. Wagner (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Human Memory, Oxford University Press.

Shaw, S.B., McKinnon, M.C., Heisz, J. and Becker, S. (2021), Dynamic task-linked switching between brain networks - A Tri-Network perspective. Brain and Cognition Volume 151, doi, Link to pre-published pdf version in bioRxiv

Nakua,H., Patel, H., Rajagobal, A., Sengupta-Murray, M. and Becker, S. (in revision), Physical Activity Moderates The Impact Of Binge Drinking On Cognition And Mood.

Hutton, C.P., Kaunismaa, E.,Lemon, J.A.,Shevtsova, O., Kapadia, M., Sakic, B., Rollo, D., Boreham, D.R., Fahnestock, M., Wojtowicz, J.M. and Becker, S. (in revision), Sexually dimorphic effects of a multi-ingredient dietary supplement on physical, cognitive and immunological function in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

[Link] Han X.,Wu Y., Zhong Y., and Becker, S. (2020) Recovery of high interference memory in spite of lingering cognitive deficits in a longitudinal pilot study of hospitalized depressed patients. Frontiers in Psychiatry 24 July 2020

[Link] Smail, L.C., Dhindsa, K., Braga, L.H., Becker, S. and Sonnadara, R.R. (2020), Using Deep Learning Algorithms to Grade Hydronephrosis Severity: Towards a Clinical Adjunct. Frontiers in Pediatrics Jan 29;8:1. doi: 10.3389/fped.2020.00001. eCollection 2020.

[Link] Shaw, S., Dhindsa, K., Reilly, J. and Becker, S. (2019), Capturing the forest but missing the trees: Microstates inadequate for characterizing shorter-scale EEG dynamics, Neural computation 31(11):2177-2211.

[Link] Keating, L.E., Becker S., McCabe K., Whattam J., Garrick L., Sassi R.B., Frey B.N., McKinnon M.C. (2019): Impact of a structured, group-based running program on clinical, cognitive and social function in youth and adults with complex mood disorders: a 12 week pilot study, BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine

[Pubmed link] Dhindsa, K., Gauder, K. D., Marszalek, K., Terpou, B., & Becker, S. (2018) Progressive Thresholding: Incorporating Shaping in Automated Neurofeedback Training. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 26(12):2297-2305.

[Pubmed link] Hutton, C.P., Lemon, J.A, Sakic, B., Rollo, C.D, Boreham, D.R, Fahnestock, M., Wojtowicz, J.M. and Becker, S. (2018), Early intervention with a multi-ingredient dietary supplement improves mood and spatial memory in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 64(3):835-857.

[link] Keating, L., Becker, S., McCabe, K., Whattam, J., Garrick, L., Frey, B., Sassi, R., and McKinnon, M. (2018), Effects of a 12-week running program in youth and adults with complex mood disorders. BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine doi:10.1136/bmjsem-2017-000314

[Pubmed link] [IEEE explore link] Dhindsa, K. & Becker, S. (2017) Emotional Reaction Recognition from EEG. 7th International Workshop on Pattern Recognition in Neuroimaging 2017

[link] Dhindsa, K., Carcone, D. and Becker, S. (2017), A brain-computer interface based on abstract visual and auditory imagery: Evidence for an effect of artistic training. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Human-computer Interaction. Vancouver, Canada. July 9-14 2017.

[PubMed] Dhindsa, K., Carcone, D. and Becker, S. (2017), Toward an open-ended BCI: A user-centered coadaptive design. Neural Computation 29(10):2742-2768

[PubMed link] Heisz, J., Clark, I.B., Bonin, K., Paolucci, E.M., Michalski, B., Becker, S. and Fahnestock, M. (2017), The effects of physical exercise and cognitive training on memory and neurotrophic factors. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 29(11): 1895-1907

[PubMed link] [pdf Preprint] Becker, S. (2017), Neurogenesis and pattern separation: Time for a divorce. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science (WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8(3):e1427. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1427)

[pdf Preprint] Finnegan, R., Shaw, M. and Becker, S. (2017), Restricted Boltzmann Machine Models of Hippocampal Coding and Neurogenesis. The Rewiring Brain: A Computational Approach to Structural Plasticity in the Adult Brain. Section VIII. Structural plasticity in large-scale models. Edited by Arjen van ooyen and Markus Butz-Ostendorf, Elsevier.

[pdf Preprint] Becker, S. (2017), Marr's simple memory theory of archicortex, then and now: four decades later, things are not quite as simple. Chapter 7, page 159-177 in Computational Theories and their Implementation in the Brain: The Legacy of David Marr. Edidted by L.M. Vaina and R.E. Passingham. Oxford University Press.

[pdf Preprint] [PubMed link] Goldstein, A., Déry, N., Pilgrim, M., Ioan, M. and Becker, S. (2016) Stress and binge drinking: a toxic combination for the teenage brain. Neuropsychologia 90:251-60. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.07.035. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

[Full text link] [PubMed link] Finnegan, R. and Becker, S. (2015), Neurogenesis paradoxically decreases both pattern separation and memory interference. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 9:136 doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2015.00136

[pdf Preprint] [PubMed link] Hutton, C., Déry, N., Rosa, E., Lemon, J., Rollo, C.D., Boreham, D., Fahnestock, M., deCatanzaro, D., Wojtowicz, J.M. and Becker, S. (2015). Synergistic effects of diet and exercise on hippocampal function in chronically stressed mice. Neuroscience 308:180-193. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.09.005

[PubMed link] [pdf Uncorrected Page Proofs] Williams, M., Becker, S., McKinnon, M., Wong, Q., Cudney, L., Steiner, M. and Frey, B.N. (2015), Emotional Memory in Pregnant Women at Risk for Postpartum Depression. Psychiatry Research 229(3), DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2015.08.003

[pdf] [PubMed] Déry, N., Goldstein, A. and Becker, S. (2015), A role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis at multiple time scales: A study of recent and remote memory in humans. Behavioral Neuroscience 129(4):435-449, DOI:10.1037/bne0000073

[PubMed link] [pdf full text link] Dhindsa, K., Drobinin, V., King, J., Hall, G., Burgess, N. and Becker, S. (2014), Examining the role of the temporo-parietal network in memory, imagery and viewpoint transformations. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Vol 8, No 709, DOI=10.3389/fnhum.2014.00709

[Pubmed link], [Preprint pdf], Han, X. and Becker, S. (2014), One spatial map or many? Spatial coding of connected environments.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition 40(2):511-31. doi: 10.1037/a0035259. Epub 2013 Dec 23,

[pdf full text link] [PubMed link] Déry, N., Pilgrim,M., Gibala, M., Gillen, J., Wojtowicz, J.M., MacQueen, G. and Becker, S. (2013), Adult hippocampal neurogenesis reduces memory interference in humans: opposing effects of aerobic exercise and depression, Frontiers in Neurogenesis 7:66, DOI:10.3389/fnins.2013.00066 10.3389 pp.66

Howell, S. R., and Becker, S. (2013). Grammar from the Lexicon: Evidence from Neural Network Simulations of Language Acquisition, in Lexical Bootstrapping. The role of lexis and semantics in child language development, D. Bittner and N. Ruhlig (Eds), de Gruyter Mouton.

[PubMed] [pdf] Han, X., Byrne, P. Kahana, M. and Becker, S. (2012), When do objects become landmarks? A VR study of the effect of task relevance on spatial memory. PLoS ONE Volume: 7 Issue: 5 Article Number: e35940 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035940.

[PubMed link] Luu, P., Sill, O., Gao, L., Becker, S., Wojtowicz, J.M. and Smith, D. (2012), The Role of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Reducing Interference. Behavioural Neuroscience 126(3):381-391.

[PubMed link] Winocur, G., Becker, S., Luu, P., Rosenzweig, S. and Wojtowicz, J.W. (2012), Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory Interference. Behavioural Brain Research 277(2) Special Issue S1 pages 464-469. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2011.05.032

[PubMed link] Chrostowski, M., Yang, L., Wilson, H., Bruce, I. and Becker, S. (2011), Can Homeostatic Plasticity in Deafferented Primary Auditory Cortex Lead to Traveling Waves of Excitation? Journal of Computational Neuroscience 30(2):279-299. DOI 10.1007/s10827-010-0256-1

[PubMed link] Vaillancourt, T., Duku, E., Becker, S., Schmidt, L.A., Nicol, J., Muir, C. and MacMillan, H. (2011), Peer victimization, depressive symptoms and high salivary cortisol predict poorer memory in children, Brain and Cognition. Special Issue on Human aggression and victimization: Genetic, neurobiological, and neuroendocrine considerations doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2011.06.012

[PubMed link] Becker, S., MacQueen, G. and Wojtowicz, J.M. (2009), Computational modeling and empirical studies of hippocampal neurogenesis-dependent memory: Effects of interference, stress and depression. Brain Research 1299:45-54.

[<pdf] [PubMed link] Aubie, B., Becker, S. and Faure, P. (2009), Computational models of millisecond level duration tuning in neural circuits. J. Neurosci. 29(29):9255-9270

[PubMed link] Turnock, M. and Becker, S. (2008), A neural network model of hippocampal-striatal-prefrontal interactions in contextual conditioning. Brain Research 1202:87-96, doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2007.06.078, 18(12):2942-2958

[pdf preprint] [Pubmed link] Byrne, P. and Becker, S. (2008), A principle for learning egocentric-allocentric transformations. Neural Computation. 20(3):709-737.

[Pubmed link] [pdf preprint] Byrne, P., Becker, S. and Burgess, N. (2007), Remembering the past and imagining the future: a neural model of spatial memory and imagery. Psychological Review 114(2):340-375.

[pdf abstract] Becker, S. and Hinton, G.E. (2007), Caching and replay of place sequences in a Temporal Restricted Boltzmann Machine model of the hippocampus, Proceedings of the Society for Neuroscience annual meeting, San Diego. Also appeared in abstract form, Proceedings of the Computational and Systems Neuroscience Meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah.

[pdf preprint] [PubMed link] Becker, S. and Wojtowicz, J.M. (2007), A model of hippocampal neurogenesis in memory and mood disorders. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11(2):70-76.

[PubMed link] [pdf preprint] Smith, A., Li, M., Becker, S. and Kapur, S. (2007), Linking animal models of psychosis to computational models of dopamine function. Neuropsychopharmacology 32(1):54-66, doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1301086,

[PubMed link] [pdf preprint] Smith, A., Li, M., Becker, S. and Kapur, S. (2006), Dopamine, prediction error, and associative learning: a model-based account. Network: Computation in Neural Systems 17(1):61-84.

[PubMed] [pdf] Dominguez M, Becker S, Bruce I, and Read H. (2006), A spiking neuron model of cortical correlates of sensorineural hearing loss: spontaneous firing, synchrony and tinnitus. Neural Computation 18(12):2942-2958,

[PubMed] [pdf] Chen, Z., Becker, S., Bondy, J., Bruce, I.C. and Haykin, S. (2005), A novel model-based hearing compensation design using a gradient-free optimization method. Neural Computation 17(12):2648-2671.

[pdf preprint] [PubMed link] Becker, S. (2005) "A computational principle for hippocampal learning and neurogenesis". Hippocampus 15(6):722-738.

[PubMed] [ pdf] Smith, A., Becker, S. and Kapur, S. (2005), A computational model of the selective role of the striatal D2-receptor in the expression of previously acquired behaviours. Neural Computation 17(2):361-395.

[pdf preprint] Howell, S. R., Jankowicz, D., and Becker, S. (2005), A Model of Grounded Language Acquisition: Sensorimotor Features Improve Grammar Learning. Journal of Memory and Language 53(2):258-276.

[PubMed link] [ pdf preprint] Smith, A., Li, M., Becker, S. and Kapur, S. (2004), A model of antipsychotic action in conditioned avoidance: a computational approach. Neuropsychopharmacology29(6):1040-9

Haykin, S., Chen, Z. and Becker, S. (2004), Stochastic Correlative Learning Algorithms, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 52(8):2200-2209.

[ pdf] Byrne, P. and Becker, S. (2004), Modelling mental navigation in scenes with multiple objects. Neural Computation 16(9):1851-1872.

Chen, Z., Haykin, S. and Becker, S. (2004), Theory of Monte Carlo Sampling-Based Alopex Algorithms For Neural Networks. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing,

Becker, S. and Wojtowicz, J.M. (2004), A role for hippocampal neurogenesis in retention of long-term memories: evidence from computational modelling. Abstract. Proceedings of the 2004 Society for Neuroscience Meeting.

[pdf] Bondy, J., Becker, S., Bruce, I., Trainor, L. and Haykin. S. (2004). A novel signal-processing strategy for hearing-aid design: NeuroCompensation. Signal Processing 84(7):1239-1253.

[pdf] Bondy, J., Bruce, I., Becker, S. and Haykin, S. (2004). Predicting Speech Intelligibility from a Population of Neurons, Advances in Neural Processing Systems 16, MIT Press.

[pdf] Trainor, L., Sonnadara, R., Wiklund, K, Bondy, J., Gupta, S., Becker, S., Bruce, I. and Haykin, S. (2004), Development of a flexible, realistic hearing in noise test environment (R-HINT-E), Signal Processing 84(8):299-309.

Bondy, J., Bruce, I.C., Dong, R., Becker, S. and Haykin, S. (2003), ``Applications for modeling of intelligibility of sensorineural hearing loss''. The Thrity-Seventh Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, Nov. 9-12 2003, Volume 1, Pages 720-724.

Chun, S., Campos, J., Chan, G., Becker, S., Burgess, N. and Sun, H.-J. (2003), "Viewpoint Dependency in the Perception of Multi-Object Layout", abstract in Proceedings of the Brain, Behaviour and Cognitive Science conference

[PubMed] [pdf] Becker, S. and Lim, J. (2003), A computational model of prefrontal control in free recall: strategic memory use in the California Verbal Learning Task, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2003, 15(6):347-374.

Gilbert, C. and Becker, S. (2003), Semantic Strategies in Free Recall, abstract in Proceedings of the Brain, Behaviour and Cognitive Science conference

[pdf] Becker, S. and Zemel, R., (2003), Unsupervised learning with global objective functions, In The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, Second edition, (M.A. Arbib, Ed.), Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2003.

Becker, S., Chan, A., Fletcher, P., Smith, A. and Kapur, S. (2003), ``A computational model of the role of dopamine and psychotropic drugs in modulating motivated action'', Schizophrenia Research 60(1) Supplement: Abstracts of th IXth International Congress on Schizophrenia Research, page 164.

Smith, A., Becker, S. and Kapur, S. (2003). From dopamine to psychosis: A computational approach. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information & Engineering Systems, St Anne's College, University of Oxford, U.K.

[Abstract.] Becker, S., Chan, A., Fletcher, P. and Kapur, S. (2002), A computational network model of the neural circuits subserving motivated behaviours, Biological Psychiatry 51(8S).

[Abstract] Becker, S. and Bruce, I. (2002), "Neural coding in the auditory periphery: Insights from physiology and modelling lead to a novel hearing compensation algorithm", Presented at the Neural Information Coding (NICE) workshop, Les Houches, France, March 2002.

Stoianov, I., Zorzi, M., Becker, S. and Umilta, C. (2002), Associative arithmetic with Boltzmann Machines: The role of number representations. Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks.

[pdf] Howell, S. and Becker, S. (2001), Modelling language acquisition: Grammar from the lexicon?, Proceedings of the cognitive science society, 2001.

[pdf] Howell, S., Becker, S. and Jankowicz, D. (2001), Modelling language acquisition: Lexical grounding through perceptual features, Proceedings of the 2001 Workshop on Developmental Embodied Cognition (DECO-2001).

[pdf] Becker, S. and Burgess, N. (2001), Modelling spatial recall, mental imagery and neglect, Advances in Neural Processing Systems 13, MIT Press, p96-102.

[PubMed] [pdf] Burgess, N., Becker, S., King, J. and O'Keefe (2001), Memory for events and their spatial context: models and experiments, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 356:1493-1503.

Yao, D., Chen, H., Becker, S., Zhou, T., Zhuo, Y. and Chen, L. (2001), A fMRI data analysis method using a fast infomax-based ICA algorithm, IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering ( IEEE CCECE) 2001.

Patel, G., Becker, S., and Racine, R. (2001), "2D Image modelling as a time-series prediction problem", in Kalman filtering applied to Neural Netwroks, S. Haykin (editor), Wiley.

[Abstract] Lim, J.C. and Becker, S. (2000), "Hippocampal-frontal interactions in memory storage and recall", abstract in Proceedings of the 22nd Meeting of the Cognitive Scienc Society.

[abstract]Cheung, A., Becker, S. and Burgess, N. (2000), "A model of hippocampal-parietal interaction in spatial navigation, imagery and episodic recall", abstract in proceedings of the workshop The nature of hippocampal-cortical interaction: Theoretical and experimental perspectives held in Dublin, Ireland, March, 2000.

[Abstract] [pdf] Stevens, C., Becker, S. and Trainor, L. (2000), "A Pitch in Time: An Artificial Neural Network of Melodic Expectancy", 5th Australasian Cognitive Science Conference, Melbourne, Australia.

Howell, S. and Becker, S. (2000), "Modelling language acquisition at multiple temporal scales", abstract in Proceedings of the 22nd Meeting of the Cognitive Scienc Society.

[pdf] Christianson, G.B. and Becker, S. (1999), A model for associative multiplication, Neural Information Processing Systems 11, 1999.

Becker, S., Chin, S. and Meeds, E. (1999), "Modelling episodic memory: A global cost function that leads to fast, local, high-capacity learning", abstract in Proceedings of the "Learning" workshop, Snowbird, Utah, April, 1999.

[ pdf ] Becker, S. (1999), Implicit learning in 3D object recognition: The importance of temporal context. Neural Computation, 11(2):347-374.

[ pdf] Liwanag, A. & Becker, S. (1997) "Improving Associative Memory Capacity: One-Shot Learning in Multilayer Hopfield Networks". In the Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pages 442-447.

[ pdf] Becker, S. (1997) "Learning temporally persistent hierarchical representations". In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 9, MIT Press, pages 824-830.

[PubMed] [ pdf] Becker, S., Moscovitch, M. Behrmann, M. and Joordens (1997), "Long-term semantic priming: A computational account and empirical evidence". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 23(5):1059-1082.

[PubMed] Joordens, S. and Becker, S. (1997), "The long and short of semantic priming effects in lexical decision". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 23(5):1083-1105 Abstract

Becker, S. (1996), "An unsupervised classifier modulated by temporal history outperforms recurrent back-propagation in face recognition", abstract in Proceedings of the Machines That Learn workshop in Snowbird, Utah. abstract

[ pdf] Becker, S. (1996), "Mutual Information Maximization: Models of Cortical Self-Organization". Network: Computation in Neural Systems, 7:7-31

[pdf] Becker, S. and Plumbley, M. (1996), "Unsupervised Neural Network Learning Procedures For Feature Extraction and Classification, " International Journal of Applied Intelligence, special issue on neural networks (F. Pineda, ed.), Vol. 6, No. 3.

[pdf] Becker, S. (1995), "JPMAX: Learning to Recognize Moving Objects as a Model-fitting Problem", in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 7:933-940, San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

[pdf] Becker, S. (1995), "Unsupervised learning with global objective functions", in The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, M. Arbib (ed), La Jolla, CA: MIT Press.

[pdf] Becker, S. and Hinton, G. E. (1995), "Spatial coherence as an internal teacher for a neural network," in Backpropagation: Theory, Architectures, and Applications, Y. Chauvin and D. Rumelhart (eds), part of the series Developments in Connectionist Theory, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Chapman, C.A. and Becker, S. (1995), "Model synapses with frequency potentiation characteristics can cooperatively enhance Hebbian learning," Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Computation and Neural Systems Meeting, Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. abstract

Chapman, C.A. and Becker, S. (1995), "Model synapses with frequency potentiation characteristics can cooperatively enhance Hebbian learning," Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Computation and Neural Systems Meeting, Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. abstract

Roberts, L.E., Racine, R.J., Durlach, P. and Becker, S. (1994), "Tuning and filtering in associative learning", in Oscillatory event-related brain dynamics, C. Pantev, T. Elbert and B. Lutkenhoner (eds), Plenum Press.

Becker, S. (1994), "Unsupervised learning of population codes as a joint density fitting problem," abstract in Proceedings of the Neural Networks for Computing Conference, Snowbird, Utah.

Becker, S., Behrmann, M. and Moscovitch, M. (1993), "Word priming in attractor networks", Proceedings of the Fifteeth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, p. 231-236.

[pdf] Becker, S. (1993), "Learning to categorize objects using temporal coherence", in Giles, C.L., Hanson, S.J. and Cowan, J.D. (eds.), Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 5, pp. 361-368, San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

[pdf] Becker, S. and Hinton, G. E. (1993), "Learning mixture models of spatial coherence," Neural Computation, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 267-277.

[pdf] Becker, S. and Hinton, G. E. (1992), "A self-organizing neural network that discovers surfaces in random-dot stereograms," Nature, Vol. 355, pp. 161-163. News&Views summary PDF, Mitchison & Durbin, Nature 2002

[pdf] Becker, S. and Hinton, G. E. (1992), "Learning to make coherent predictions in domains with discontinuities," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 4, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

[ pdf p1-50, p51-100, p101-148] Becker, S. (1992), "An Information-theoretic unsupervised learning algorithm for neural networks", PhD Thesis, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science.

[pdf] Becker, S. (1991), "Unsupervised learning procedures for neural networks," International Journal Of Neural Systems, Vol. 2, No. 1\&2, pp. 17-33.

Hinton, G. E. and Becker, S. (1990), "An unsupervised learning procedure that discovers surfaces in random-dot stereograms," Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Vol. 1, pp. 218-222, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.

Becker, S. and le Cun, Y. (1988), "Improving the convergence of back-propagation learning with second-order methods," Proceedings of the 1988 Connectionist Models Summer School, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, D. S. Touretzky, G. E. Hinton and T. J. Sejnowski (eds). Also appeared as University of Toronto Connectionist Research Group Technical Report CRG-TR-88-5.