Mertice ClarkLab Website:
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What pre-requisites do you look for when evaluating a potential thesis student?

Students with excellent grades (9+)and a strong background in statistics and neuroscience.

What information are you going to want from a student who is interested in working in your lab?

Unofficial transcript and a cover letter describing what aspect of the research program interests them most.

Please email me. Please include "! Thesis request" or "Independent study request" in the subject line of your email, as appropriate.

E-mail with the above support information.


(Ph.D. - British Columbia)
Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour
1280 Main Street West
Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1
PHONE: (905)525-9140, Ext. 23014 LAB: 22038
FAX: (905)-5296225
EMAIL: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


My current research concerns the reproductive impacts of estrogens and similar molecules from natural and unnatural sources outside the individual's own body.  This work is focused on estrogenic actions affecting early pregnancy, pubertal development, and perinatal sexual differentiation.  It is primarily conducted with laboratory mice, but we are interested in basic processes observed in diverse mammals including humans.  Here are some of the ongoing projects: 


Roles of steroids as pheromones:  My students and I have been studying two well-known mammalian pheromonal effects, the disruption of early pregnancy by novel males ("Bruce effect") and the advancement of female puberty by exposure to novel males ("Vandenbergh effect").  We have gathered much evidence implicating male-excreted estrogens and androgens that are absorbed into females' systems.  We have shown that very low doses of exogenous estrogens administered to females can mimic both pheromonal effects.  There are established mechanisms in the uterus through which estrogens can disrupt intrauterine implantation of fertilized ova in inseminated females and promote reproductive tract maturation in developing females.  We have measured substantial quantities of estradiol and other steroids in the excretions of males, especially when they are in the presence of females.  We have demonstrated that males' excretions impinge upon the nasal area and skin of nearby females.  We have been tracing radiolabeled estradiol and other steroids in both male and female mice.  We have observed that 3H-estradiol introduced into males can pass from their circulation to their urine.  When females are nasally exposed to 3H-estradiol or urine from males given 3H-estradiol, radioactivity is detected in the females' circulation and readily found in diverse tissues including the uterus and brain.  This ongoing experimentation is providing a new explanation of these classic mammalian pheromonal phenomena.

Xenoestrogens and phytoestrogens:  We are examining the reproductive influences of estrogenic environmental contaminants such as bisphenol-A and parabens.  We are also investigating natural plant phytoestrogens such as those found in soy products.  We focus on the same estrogen-sensitive measures that are examined in the pheromonal studies described above, i.e. the success or failure of early pregnancy and the progress of reproductive maturation in young females.  We are also looking at perinatal exposure to hormone-mimicking chemicals, because of the potential of these substances to alter sexual differentiation of brain and behaviour.

Some recent publications

Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles:

  • Pollock T, Mantella L, Reali V, deCatanzaro D. (2017). Influence of tetrabromobisphenol A, with or without concurrent triclosan, upon bisphenol A and estradiol concentrations in mice. Environmental Health Perspectives in press.
  • Greville LJ, Pollock T, Salter JC, Faure PA, deCatanzaro D. (2017). Progesterone transfer among cohabitating female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and potential pheromonal effects. General and Comparative Endocrinology in press.
  • Borman ED, Vecchi N, Pollock T, deCatanzaro D. (2017). Diethylhexyl phthalate magnifies deposition of 14C-bisphenol A in reproductive tissues of mice. Journal of Applied Toxicology in press.
  • Pollock T, Weaver RE, Ghasemi R, deCatanzaro D. (2017). Butyl paraben and propyl paraben modulate bisphenol A and estradiol concentrations in female and male mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 325 18–24.
  • Elliott B, Muir C, deCatanzaro D. (2017). Sources of variance within and among young men in concentrations of 17β‑estradiol and testosterone in axillary perspiration. Physiology & Behavior 173 23–29.
  • Borman ED, Foster WG, deCatanzaro D. (2017). Concurrent administration of diethyhexyl phthalate reduces the threshold dose at which bisphenol A disrupts blastocyst implantation and cadherins in mice. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 49 105-111.
  • deCatanzaro D, Pollock T. (2016). Absorption and distribution of estradiol from male seminal emissions during mating. Journal of Endocrinology 231 245-257.
  • Pollock T, Greville LJ, Tang B, deCatanzaro D. (2016). Triclosan elevates estradiol levels in serum and tissues of cycling and peri-implantation female mice. Reproductive Toxicology 65 394-401.
  • Hutton C, Déry N, Rosa E, Lemon J, Rollo CD, Boreham D, Fahnestock M, deCatanzaro D, Wojtowicz JM, Becker S. (2015). Synergistic effects of diet and exercise on hippocampal function in chronically stressed mice. Neuroscience 308 180-193.
  • deCatanzaro D. (2015). Sex steroids as pheromones in mammals: The exceptional role of estradiol. Hormones and Behavior 68 103-116.
  • Borman ED, Foster WG, Greenacre MKE, Muir C, deCatanzaro D. (2015). Stress lowers the dose at which bisphenol A disrupts blastocyst implantation, in conjunction with decreased uterine closure and e-cadherin. Chemico-Biological Interactions 237 87-95.
  • deCatanzaro D, Pollock T, Greville LJ, Faure PA. (2014). Estradiol transfer from male big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to the reproductive and brain tissues of cohabiting females, and its action as a pheromone. General and Comparative Endocrinology 208 126-133.
  • Pollock T, deCatanzaro D. (2014). Presence and bioavailability of bisphenol A in the uterus of rats and mice following single and repeated oral administration at low doses. Reproductive Toxicology 49 145-154.
  • Pollock T, Tang B, deCatanzaro D. (2014). Triclosan exacerbates the presence of 14C-bisphenol A in tissues of female and male mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 278 116-123.
  • Thorpe JB, Gould KE, Borman ED, deCatanzaro D. (2014). Circulating and urinary adrenal corticosterone, progesterone, and estradiol in response to acute stress in female mice (Mus musculus). Hormone and Metabolic Research46 211-218.
  • Rajabi N, Thorpe JB, Foster WG, deCatanzaro D. (2014). Novel male exposure reduces uterine e-cadherin, increases uterine luminal area, and diminishes progesterone levels while disrupting blastocyst implantation in inseminated mice. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 139 107-113.
  • Thorpe JB, Burgess PS, Sadkowski M, deCatanzaro D. (2013). Estrogen-progesterone balance in the context of blastocyst implantation failure induced by predator stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38 3048-3056.
  • Guzzo AC, Pollock T, deCatanzaro D. (2013). Transfer of [3H]estradiol-17β and [3H]progesterone from conspecifics to cohabiting female mice. Journal of Endocrinology217 1-10.
  • deCatanzaro D, Berger RG, Guzzo AC, Thorpe JB, Khan A. (2013). Perturbation of male sexual behavior in mice (Mus musculus) within a discrete range of perinatal bisphenol-A doses in the context of a high- or low-phytoestrogen diet.Food and Chemical Toxicology55 164-171.
  • Crawford BR, deCatanzaro D. (2012). Disruption of blastocyst implantation by triclosan in mice: Impacts of chronic and acute doses and combination with bisphenol-A. Reproductive Toxicology 34 607-613.
  • Thorpe JB, Rajabi N, deCatanzaro D (2012). Circadian rhythm and response to an acute stressor of urinary corticosterone and testosterone in adult male mice. Hormone and Metabolic Research 44, 429-435.
  • Guzzo AC, Jheon J, Imtiaz F, deCatanzaro D (2012). Oestradiol transmission from males to females in the context of the Bruce and Vandenbergh effects in mice (Mus musculus). Reproduction 143, 539-548.
  • Thorpe JB, deCatanzaro D (2012). Oestradiol treatment restores the capacity of castrated males to induce both the Vandenbergh and the Bruce effects in mice (Mus musculus). Reproduction 143, 123-132.
  • deCatanzaro D (2011). Blastocyst implantation is vulnerable to stress-induced rises in endogenous estrogens and also to excretions of estrogens by proximate males. Journal of Reproductive Immunology 90, 14-20.
  • Berger RG, Foster WG, deCatanzaro D (2010). Bisphenol-A exposure during the period of blastocyst implantation alters uterine morphology and perturbs measures of estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in mice. Reproductive Toxicology 30, 393-400.
  • Roullet FI, Wollaston L, deCatanzaro D, Foster JA (2010). Behavioral and molecular changes in the mouse in response to prenatal exposure to the anti-epileptic drug valproic acid. Neuroscience 170, 514-522.
  • Guzzo AC, Berger RG, deCatanzaro D (2010). Excretion and binding of tritium-labelled oestradiol in mice (Mus musculus): Implications for the Bruce effect. Reproduction 139, 255-263.
  • Kolozsi E, MacKenzie RN, Roullet FI, deCatanzaro D, Foster JA (2009). Prenatal exposure to valproic acid leads to reduced expression of synaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin 3 in mice. Neuroscience163, 1201-1210.
  • Khan A, Berger RG, deCatanzaro D (2009). Preputialectomised and intact adult male mice exhibit an elevated urinary ratio of oestradiol to creatinine in the presence of developing females, whilst promoting uterine and ovarian growth of these females. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 21, 860-868.
  • deCatanzaro D, Khan A, Berger RG, Lewis E (2009). Exposure to developing females induces polyuria, polydipsia, and altered urinary levels of creatinine, 17β-estradiol, and testosterone in adult male mice (Mus musculus). Hormones and Behavior 55, 240-247.
  • Shaw J, deCatanzaro D (2009). Estrogenicity of parabens revisited: Impact of parabens on early pregnancy and an uterotrophic assay in mice. Reproductive Toxicology 28, 26-31.
  • Vaillancourt T, deCatanzaro D, Duku E, Muir C (2009). Androgen dynamics in the context of children’s peer relations: An examination of the links between testosterone and peer-victimization. Aggressive Behavior 35, 103-113.
  • Berger RG, Shaw J, deCatanzaro D (2008). Impact of acute bisphenol A exposure upon intrauterine implantation of fertilized ova and urinary 17β-estradiol and progesterone levels. Reproductive Toxicology 26, 94-99.
  • Muir CC, Treasurywala K, McAllister S, Sutherland J, Dukas L, Berger RG, Khan A, deCatanzaro D (2008). Enzyme immunoassay of testosterone, 17β-estradiol, and progesterone in perspiration and urine of preadolescents and young adults: Exceptional levels in men’s axillary perspiration. Hormone and Metabolic Research 40, 819-826.
  • Khan A, Bellefontaine N, deCatanzaro D (2008). Onset of sexual maturation in female mice as measured in behavior and fertility: Interactions of exposure to males, phytoestrogen content of diet, and ano-genital distance. Physiology & Behavior 93, 588–594.
  • Khan A, Berger RG, deCatanzaro D (2008). The onset of puberty in female mice as reflected in urinary steroids and uterine/ovarian mass: Interactions of exposure to males, phyto-oestrogen content of diet, and ano-genital distance. Reproduction 135, 99-106.
  • Vaillancourt T, Duku E, deCatanzaro D, MacMillan H, Muir C, Schmidt LA (2008). Variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity among bullied and non-bullied children. Aggressive Behavior 34, 294-305.




  • deCatanzaro, D. (1999). Motivation and Emotion: Evolutionary, Physiological, Developmental, and Social Perspectives. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall (Pearson Education).  Also published in Spanish (2001), Polish (2003), and Japanese (2005).



about margo wilson

A tireless, generous advocate of international, interdisciplinary collaboration, Margo spearheaded successful research with colleagues from Canada, Brazil, Japan, Norway, the UK and the USA.

Margo Wilson was born in Winnipeg in 1942.  She moved to the Canadian Arctic in 1948, and attended a one-room primary school at which she was the only non-aboriginal pupil.  After completing high school in Victoria BC, she earned a BA in psychology from the University of Alberta in 1964, and pursued graduate studies in behavioural endocrinology at the University of California and at University College, London, where she earned her PhD in 1972 for pioneering work on the behavioural effects of gonadectomy and hormone replacement in monkeys.

Margo met Martin Daly in Toronto in 1975, and the two became inseparable, moving to McMaster in 1978, and collaborating on research on the psychology and behaviour of both nonhuman animals and Homo sapiens until her death in 2009.  Margo thought outside the box, and one of her most fertile ideas was the homicides provide a rich source of information on interpersonal conflict and thus, more generally, on human passion.  This idea launched a 30-year program of epidemiological analyses of who is likely to kill whom, which became Wilson and Daly's best known work.


Academic History

Currently, I am pursuing two main lines of research questions which derive from taking an evolutionary psychological perspective on perceptions, emotions and motivations.

1. Interpersonal conflict and violence: These studies in collaboration with Martin Daly and others are mainly epidemiological analyses of patterns of risk of lethal and nonlethal violence in different categories of relationships, especially, marital and parent-offspring relationships.

2. Perceptions and valuations of the environment: A multi-disciplinary research project, Ecowise, was initiated at McMaster University to study various aspects of the ecosystem of Hamilton Harbour and Cootes Paradise. Some of the research on what people like and know about this ecosystem is described on the Ecowise website (

Representative Publications: Martin Daly, & Margo Wilson (1998). The truth about Cinderella: A Darwinian view of parental love. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN: 0 297 84161 0 4.99 pounds sterling

Margo Wilson & Martin Daly (1997) Life expectancy, economic inequality, homicide, and reproductive timing in Chicago neighbourhoods. British Medical Journal 314: 1271-1274.

Martin Daly & Margo Wilson (1997) Crime and conflict: homicide in evolutionary psychological perspective. Crime and Justice, vol. 22: 51-100.

Margo Wilson & Martin Daly (1996) Male sexual proprietariness and violence against wives. Current Directions in Psychological Science 5: 2-7.

Margo Wilson, Martin Daly & Antonietta Daniele (1995) Familicide: the killing of spouse and children. Aggressive Behavior 21: 275-291.

Margo Wilson, Holly Johnson & Martin Daly (1995) Lethal and nonlethal violence against wives. Canadian Journal of Criminology 37: 331-361.

Margo Wilson, Lesley Robertson, Martin Daly & Steven Walton (1995) Effects of visual cues on assessment of water quality. Journal of Environmental Psychology 15: 53-63.

Margo Wilson, Martin Daly, Stephen Gordon & Adelle Pratt (1996) Sex differences in valuations of the environment? Population and Environment 18: 143-159.





(Ph.D. McMaster)
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(905)525-9140, Ext. 23000


This is me testing a baby and at a party
visionterri Terri

 My main research interests involve studying the development of vision in normal infants, the consequences of visual deprivation during infancy, and recovery from amblyopia.

 The normal development of vision. We are investigating developmental changes in visual abilities such as the perception of form and motion. The results to date suggest that aspects of vision requiring more steps of cortical processing are slower to develop than those requiring fewer steps of cortical processing.  

The visual development of children treated for cataracts. To learn more about the importance of early visual experience on the development of vision, we have been studying an unusually large cohort of children who were deprived of normal visual input until they had surgery to remove dense central cataracts and were fitted with contact lenses. Studies in progress involve visual acuity, and the perception of form and motion. Deficits in these patients suggest that visual outcome is influenced by when the deprivation began, how long it lasted, and whether it occurred in one or both eyes. Moreover, the effects of early visual deprivation often differ for aspects of vision mediated by the primary visual cortex versus those mediated by higher cortical areas.

Recovery from amblyopia. We have established a collaborative research network of six labs from around the world in order to (1) study ways to induce recovery from amblyopia and (2) use amblyopia as a model system to re-examine critical periods and developmental changes in plasticity.

Overall, the results will provide insights into the developmental mechanisms driving changes in visual abilities. The results will also have important clinical implications for understanding treatment protocols leading to an optimal visual outcome and may also provide a basis for new approaches to rehabilitation.







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Bruce MillikenLab Website:
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What pre-requisites do you look for when evaluating a potential thesis student?

Students interested in doing an honours thesis in my lab must have taken Psych 2H03, at a minimum. It's helpful if they've also taken Psych 3VV3, and ideal if they've also taken the lab course I offer in Human Memory and Cognition (Psych 3V03). Of course, I'm looking for students with a strong interest in human cognition, and in particular an interest in the topics of attention, memory, and cognitive control.

What information are you going to want from a student who is interested in working in your lab?

I'll want to look at a transcript, and it helps to have students e-mail me with a brief description of their research interests and long-term goals.

Please email me. Please include "! Thesis request" or "Independent study request" in the subject line of your email, as appropriate.

E-mail contact is preferred, after which we may set up an individual appointment to talk further.

Martin Daly

(Ph.D., Toronto)
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 
905-525-9140, ext.23018 
to find out more about the research in our lab click here

I am interested in the relevance of evolutionary and ecological theories to psychology. My more specific interests include comparative studies of social diversity among related animal species, sex differences, parent-offspring relations, lethal violence, and the evolutionary consequences of uncertain paternity in animals with internal fertilization.

I conduct research on both human and nonhuman behaviour, usually in collaboration with Margo Wilson. We do field and laboratory research on the behavioural ecology of desert rodents, and we do epidemiological studies of homicide, which we treat as a window on human passions and antagonisms and hence as a sort of assay of interpersonal conflict.

  • Daly, M., & Wilson, M. (1998). The truth about Cinderella: A Darwinian view of parental love. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN: 0 297 84161 0 4.99 pounds sterling
  • Daly, M., & Wilson, M.I. (1994). Discriminativ e parental solicitude and the relevance of evolutionary models to the analysis of motivational systems. Pp. 1269-1286, in M. Gazzaniga, ed., The Cognitive Neurosciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Daly M., Singh, L.S., & Wilson, M. (1993). Children fathered by previous partners: a risk factor for violence against women. Canadian Journal of Public Health 84: 209-210.
  • Wilson, M., Daly, M., & Wright, C. (1993). Uxoricide in Canada: demographic risk patterns. Canadian Journal of Criminolog 35: 263-291.
  • Daly, M., Jacobs, L.F., Wilson, M.I., & Behrends, P.R. (1992). Scatter-hoarding by kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) and pilferage from their caches. Behavioral Ecology 3: 102-111.
  • Daly, M., Behrends, P.R., Wilson, M.I., & Jacobs, L.F. (1992). Behavioural modulation of predation risk: moonlight avoidance and crepuscular compensation in a nocturnal desert rodent, Dipodomys merriami. Animal Behaviour 44: 1-4.
  • Daly, M., & Wilson, M. (1988). Homicide. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
  • Daly, M., & Wilson, M. (1988). Evolutionary social psychology and family homicide. Science 242: 519-524.
  • Daly, M., & Wilson, M. (1983). Sex, evolution and behavior, 2nd ed. Belmont CA: Wadsworth.

Dr. Daly is past-President of the Human Behavior & Evolution Society (1991-1993). He has been elected to the executive committees of the Animal Behavior Society and the International Society for Behavioral Ecology, and has been the recipient of fellowships from the J.S. Guggenheim Foundation, the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and the Rockefeller Foundation.

Dan GoldreichLab Website:
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What pre-requisites do you look for when evaluating a potential thesis student?

I look for students with excellent grades in neuroscience and perception courses, particularly Psych 2F03. Given the nature of my lab's research, I am further inclined towards students who have performed very well in math and physics courses. An excellent cumulative average is a definite plus. I am generally looking for students who are willing to commit to the 9-credit thesis option (Psych 4D09).

What information are you going to want from a student who is interested in working in your lab?

Please email me your unofficial transcript, a brief description of your academic background, and your reasons for wishing to join my lab. Which aspects of my lab's research most interest you?
Upon receipt of your email, I will make a preliminary evaluation, and if you seem to be a potentially suitable candidate for my lab, I will email you back with a series of questions for you to answer. These questions will involve considerable work on your part. For instance, I will ask you to read a particular research article that my lab has published and to answer questions about that article, so that I can further evaluate your ability to think creatively and critically about the sort of research that my lab pursues. After I receive your responses, I may contact you for an individual meeting.

Please email me. Please include "! Thesis request" or "Independent study request" in the subject line of your email, as appropriate.

See above.

Bruce Milliken(Ph.D. - Waterloo)

Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour
1280 Main Street West
Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 - PC-414
PHONE: (905)525-9140, Ext. 24361 LAB: 27156
FAX: (905)-529-6225
EMAIL: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

The aim of research conducted in our laboratory is to better understand processes that comprise the interface between perception and cognition in humans. Although these two subjects are often taught separately at the undergraduate level, even the simplest of interactions with our environment involve what must be a complex interplay between low level perceptual and higher level cognitive processes. In particular, visual selective attention is the focus of much of the research conducted in our lab.

This work looks at how selection of visual information can be both under the control of the observer, and yet also modulated implicitly by past experience. This fundamental theoretical issue plays itself out across a wide range of experimental scenarios. Currently, we are using several attentional paradigms (e.g. negative priming, inhibition of return) to help us identify mechanisms that allow us to respond preferentially to familiar over novel visual stimuli in some situations, but to novel over familiar visual stimuli in others. 

  • Torres-Quesada M, Milliken B, Lupiáñez J, Funes, MJ,  (in press).  Proportion congruent effects in the absence of sequential congruency effects: The same mechanism cannot explain both.  Psicologica
  • Shedden, J., Milliken, B., Watter, S. & Monteiro, S. (in press).  Event-related potentials as brain correlates of item specific proportion congruent effects. Consciousness & Cognition.
  • Lapointe, M., Lupiáñez, J. & Milliken, B.   (2013).  Context congruency effects in change detection: Opposing effects on detection and identification.  Visual Cognition, 21, 99-122.
  • Thomson, D. & D’Ascenzo, M. & Milliken, B.  (2013).  Learning what to expect: Context-specific control over intertribal priming effects in singleton search.  Memory & Cognition, 41,533-546.
  • Spadaro, A. & Milliken, B.  (2013).  Subjective expectancy and inhibition of return: A dissociation in a non-spatial two-alternative forced choice task.  Psicologica, 34, 199-219.
  • Fiacconi, C. & Milliken, B.  (2013).  Visual memory for feature bindings: The disruptive effect of responding to new perceptual input.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology  (Online First Publication Jan 4, 2013. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2012.753925).
  • D’Angelo, M.C., Milliken, B., Jiménez, L. & Lupiáñez, J.  (2013).  Implementing flexibility in automaticity: Evidence from context-specific implicit sequence learning.  Consciousness and Cognition, 22, 64-81.
  • D’Angelo, M., Jimenez, L., Milliken, B., & Lupiáñez, J.  (2013).  On the specificity of sequential congruency effects in implicit learning of motor and perceptual sequences.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 39, 69-84.
  • Thomson, D.R. & Milliken, B.  (2013).  Contextual distinctiveness produces long-lasting priming of popout.   Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 39, 202-215.
  • Thomson, D. & Milliken, B.  (2012).  Revisiting the time course of inter-trial feature priming in singleton search.  Psychological Research.  (Online First Publication September 2012.  doi: 10.1007/s00426-012-0455-7).
  • Cañadas, E., Rodríguez-Bailón, R., Milliken, B. & Lupiáñez, J.  (2012).  Social categories as a context for the allocation of attentional control.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General  (Online First Publication Aug 20, 2012. doi: 10.1037/a0029794).
  • Fiacconi, C. & Milliken, B.  (2012).  Contingency blindness:  Location-idenitty binding mismatches abscure awareness of spatial contingencies and produce profound interference in visual working memory.  Memory & Cognition, 40, 932-945.
  • Sarmiento, B.R., Shore, D.I., Milliken, B. & Sanabria, D.  (2012).  Audiovisual interactions depend on context of congruency.  Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 74, 563-574.
  • Thomson, D. & Milliken, B.  (2012).  Perceptual distinctiveness produces long-lasting priming of popout.  Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 19, 170-176.
  • D’Angelo, M. & Milliken, B.  (2012).  Context-specific control and the single prime negative priming procedure.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 65, 887-910.
  • Spadaro, A., He, C. & Milliken, B.  (2012).  Response to an intervening event reverses non-spatial repetition effects in 2-AFC tasks: Non-spatial IOR?  Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 74, 331-349.
  • Milliken, B., Thomson, D., Bleile, K., MacLellan, E. & Giammarco, M.  (2012).  Context-specific control and the Stroop negative priming effect.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, 1430-1448.
  • Fiacconi, C. & Milliken, B.  (2011).  On the role of attention in generating explicit awareness of contingent relations: Evidence from spatial priming.  Consciousness & Cognition, 20, 1433-1451.
  • Thomson, D. & Milliken, B.  (2011).  A switch in task affects priming of popout: Evidence for the role of episodes.  Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 73, 318-333.
  • Leboe, J., Leboe, L., & Milliken, B.  (2010).  Constraints on the observation of partial match costs: Implications for transfer appropriate processing approaches to immediate priming.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36, 634-648.
  • Vaquero, J., Fiacconi, C. & Milliken, B.   (2010).  Attention, awareness and control in spatial localization: A qualitative difference approach.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 36, 1342-1357.
  • Thomson, D., Milliken, B., & Smilek, D.  (2010).  Long-term conceptually-driven implicit memory: A decade of evidence.  Memory &Cognition, 38, 42-46.
  • Crump, M.J., & Milliken, B.  (2009).  The flexibility of context-specific control: Evidence for context-driven generalization of item-specific control settings.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 1523-1532.
  • Crump, M., Ansari, I. & Milliken, B.  (2008).  Shifting views on the symbolic cueing effect:  Cueing attention through previous experience. Psicologica, 29, 65-95.
  • Funes, M.J., Lupianez, J. & Milliken, B.  (2008).  The modulation of exogenous spatial cueing on spatial Stroop interference: Evidence of a set for “cue-target event segregation”.  Psicologica, 29, 65-95.
  • Crump, M., Vaquero, J., & Milliken, B.  (2008).  Context specific learning and control: The role of awareness, task relevance, and relative salience.  Consciousness & Cognition, 17, 22-36.
  • Funes, M.J., Lupianez, J. & Milliken, B.   (2007).  Separate mechanisms recruited by exogenous and endogenous spatial cues: Evidence from a Spatial Stroop paradigm.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 33, 348-362.
  • Lupianez, B., Ruz, M., Funes, M.J., & Milliken, B.  (2007).  The manifestation of IOR depends on attentional capture: Facilitation or IOR depends on task demands.   Psychological Research, 71, 77-91.
  • Milliken, B. & Lupianez, J.  (2007).  Repetition costs in word identification.  Evaluating a stimulus-response integration account.  Psychological Research, 71, 64-76.
  • Crump, M., Gong, Z. & Milliken, B.  (2006).  Location as a contextual cue for the item-specific proportion congruent effect.  Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 316-321.
  • Catena, A., Castillo, A., Fuentes, L., & Milliken, B.  (2006).  Processing of distractors inside and outside the attentional focus in a priming procedure.  Visual Cognition, 13, 601-622.


Deda GillespieLab Website:
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What pre-requisites do you look for when evaluating a potential thesis student?

Mark of at least 10 in Fundamentals of Neuroscience, plus a strong background in biology, physics, or chemistry. Good quantitative skills and good manual dexterity are extremely helpful.

What information are you going to want from a student who is interested in working in your lab?

Please read the "Information for Undergraduates" page on the lab website and follow the instructions given there.

How do you want to be contacted?

See above.

Betty Ann Levy(Ph.D., Toronto)

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FAX: 905-529-6225

We study the co-ordination of cognitive processes involved in the fluent reading of young adults and in the development of reading fluency during early childhood. Our adult studies focus on the representations that mediate rapid reading with comprehension. Our interest is in how knowledge about a passage influences the subsequent reading of that passage. We attempt to specify those aspects of a text that are available in memory after a reading encounter that can be used later to facilitate rereading. Our recent findings support a model of episodic representations that can be recruited to 'guide' reading of the new passage. These episodic representations include meaning, but they also include information about perceptual and linguistic aspects of the text. We are now using text processing models to explore the nature of representations at the different linguistic levels involved in reading.

In our developmental lab, that operates in schools throughout the Hamilton school system, we have explored the efficacy of whole word versus segmentation method for acquiring initial reading vocabulary in the early school years. We are now examining the differential benefits of a variety of training methods, as these relate to the cognitive profiles of normally achieving children, as well as children with learning disability.

Publications (since 1990)

  • Levy, B.A. & Burns, K.I. (1990). Reprocessing text: Contributions from conceptually-driven processes. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 44, 465-482.
  • Levy, B.A., & Hinchley, J. (1990). Individual and developmental differences in the acquisition of reading skills. In T.H. Carr, and B.A. Levy, (Eds.) Reading and Its Development: Component Skills Approaches. New York: Academic Press.
  • Levy, B.A. & Carr, T.H. (1990). Component process analyses: Conclusions and challenges. In T.H. Carr, and B.A. Levy, (Eds.), Reading and Its Development: Component Skills Approaches. New York: Academic Press.
  • Levy, B.A, Masson, M.E.J., & Zoubek, M.A. (1991). Rereading text: Words and their contexts. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 45, 492-506.
  • Jacoby, L.L., Levy, B.A. & Steinbach, K. (1992). Episodic transfer and automaticity: The integration of data-driven and conceptually-driven processes in rereading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 18, 15-24.
  • Levy, B.A., Di Persio, R., & Hollingshead, A. (1992). Fluent rereading: repetition, automaticity and discrepancy. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 18, 957-971.
  • Lemoine, H., Levy, B.A., & Hutchinson, A. (1993). Increasing the naming speed of poor readers: Representations formed across repetitions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 55, 297-328.
  • Levy, B.A., Barnes, L., & Martin, L. (1993). Transfer of fluency across repetitions and across texts. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology (special issue on reading), 1993, 47, 401-427.
  • Levy, B.A., Nicholls, A., & Kohen, D. (1993). Repeated readings: Process benefits for good and poor readers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 56, 303-327.
  • Levy, B.A. (1993). Fluent rereading: An implicit indicator of reading skill development. In P. Graf and M. Masson (Eds.). Implicit Memory: New directions in cognition, development and neuropsychology. Hillsdale, N.J.:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 49-73.
  • Faulkner, H., & Levy, B.A. (1994). How text difficulty and reader skill interact to produce differential reliance on word and content overlap in rereading transfer. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 58, 1-24.
  • Levy, B.A., Campsall, J., Browne, J., Cooper, D., Waterhouse, C., & Wilson, C. (1995). Reading fluency: Episodic integration across texts. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 21, 1169-1185.
  • Levy, B.A. & Lysynchuk, L. (1997). Beginning word recognition: Benefits of training by segmentation and whole word methods. Scientific Studies of Reading, 1, 359-387.
  • Levy, B.A., Abello, B. & Lysynchuk, L. (1997). Transfer from word training to reading in context: Gains in reading fluency and comprehension. Disabilities Quarterly, 20, 173-188.
  • Bourassa, D.C., Levy, B.A., Dowin, S. & Casey, A. (1998). Transfer effects across contextual and linguistic boundaries: Evidence from poor readers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 71, 45-61.
  • Faulkner, H., & Levy, B.A (1999). Fluent and nonfluent forms of transfer in reading: Words and their message. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6, 111-116.
  • Levy, B.A., Bourassa, D.C., & Horn, C. (1999). Fast and slow namers: Benefits of segmentation and whole word training. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 73, 115-138.
  • Jared, D., Levy, B.A., Rayner, K. (1999). The role of phonology in the activation of word meanings during reading: Evidence from proofreading and eye movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 219-264.
  • Levy, B.A.(1999) Whole words, segments, and meaning: Approaches to reading education. In R. Klein & P. McMullen (Eds.). Converging Methods for Understanding Reading and Dyslexia, Cambridge, Mass.:MIT Press, p. 77-110.
  • Levy, B.A. (2001). Text processing: Memory representations mediate fluent reading. In M. Neveh-Benjamin, M. Moscovitch, and H.L. Roediger, III, (Eds.). Perspectives on Human Memory and Cognitive Aging: Essays in Honour of Fergus Craik. Philadelphia: Psychology Press, p.83-97.
  • Levy, B.A. (2001). Moving the bottom: Improving reading fluency. In M. Wolf (Ed.). Dyslexia, Fluency, and the Brain, Timonium, Md.: York Press, pp 367-379.
  • Anvari, S., Trainor, L., Woodside, J. & Levy, B.A. (2002). Relations among music skills, phonological processing and early readying ability among preschool children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 83, 111-130.
  • Martin-Chang, S. & Levy, B.A. (2005). Fluency transfer: Differential gains in reading speed and accuracy following isolated word and context training. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 18, 343-376.
  • Levy, B.A., Gong, Z., Hessels, S., Evans, M.A., & Jared, D. (2006). Understanding print: Early reading development and the contributions of home literacy experiences. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 93, 63-93.
  • Martin-Chang, S. & Levy, B.A. (2006). Word reading fluency: A transfer appropriate processing account of fluency transfer. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 19, 517-542.
  • Conrad, N.J. & Levy, B.A. (2007). Letter processing and the formation of memory representations in children with naming speed deficits. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 20, 201-223.
  • Martin-Chang, S., Levy, B.A. & O'Neil, S. (2007). Word acquisition, retention and transfer: Findings from contextual and isolated word training. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 96, 37-56.
  • Collins, W.M., & Levy, B.A. (2007). Text repetition and text integration. Memory and Cognition, 35, 1557-1566.
  • Levy, B.A. and Collins, W.M. (2008). Fluent reading and the representation of text. In Cartwright, K.B. (Ed.) Literacy Processes:  Cognitive Flexibility in Learning and Teaching, NY:  Guilford Publishing, pp. 234-253.
  • Collins, W.M., & Levy, B.A. (2008).  Developing fluent text processing with practice:  Memorial influences on fluency and comprehension.  Canadian Psychologist: Special Issue, 49, 113-139.
  • Gong, Z. & Levy, B.A. (2009). Four-year-old children's acquisition of print knowledge during electronic storybook reading.  Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 22, 889-905. Online version: DOI: 10.1007/s11145-008-9130-1.
  • Conrad, N.J. & Levy, B.A.  (2009).  Training letter and orthographic pattern recognition in children with slow naming speed.  Reading and Writing:  An interdisciplinary Journal.  Online version: DOI 10.1007/s11145-009-9292x.
  • Jared, D., Cormier, P., Levy, B.A., Wade-Woolley, L.  (2011).  Early predictors of biliteracy development in children in Frech Immersion:  A 4-year longitudinal study.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 119-139.
  • Jared, D., Cormier, P., Levy, B.A., Wade-Woolley, L. (2012).  Cross language activation of phonology in young bilingual readers.  Reading & Writing, 25, 1327-1343.
  • Jared, D., Cormier, P; Levy, B.A., Wade-Wolley, L. (2013) Discrimination of English and French Orthographic Patterns by Biliterate Children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, in press.



  • Carr, T.H., & Levy, B.A. (Eds.) (1990). Reading and Its Developmental: Component Skills Approaches. New York: Academic Press..

Daphne MaurerLab Website:
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

What pre-requisites do you look for when evaluating a potential thesis student?

We are looking for students with a strong interest in visual development and excellent grades, especially in sensation and perception, neuroscience, and statistics. Students should be self-motivated and enjoy working with children.

What information are you going to want from a student who is interested in working in your lab?

A resume and an unofficial MUGSI transcript including cumulative GPA.

How do you want to be contacted?

Please e-mail me. Note that Dr. Terri Lewis and I work together and so, if you want to do a project in our lab, please contact only one of us.

Contact Department

Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour (PNB)
Psychology Building (PC), Room 102
McMaster University
1280 Main Street West
Hamilton Ontario L8S 4K1