Louis A. Schmidt profile picture

Louis A. Schmidt

Ph.D. (Maryland)

Professor & Science Research Chair   
in Early Determinants of Mental Health

Director, Child Emotion Laboratory

Fellow, Association for Psychological Science

Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1, Canada


905-525-9140  |  ext. 23028 (office)  |  ext. 24798 (lab)


Research Interests & Foci

- personality and socioemotional development
- temperament and affect regulation
- developmental and individual differences
- typical and atypical development 
- developmental psychophysiology and psychopathology
- psychometrics, measurement and contextual issues

Selected Recent Representative Publications

Note: Names of students and research trainees are underlined.

Brook, C.A., & Schmidt, L.A. (2022). Psychometric perspectives on shyness across the lifespan: Measurement invariance and mean level differences in ages 4 to 86 years. Applied Developmental Science, 26, 1-14.

Hassan, R., & Schmidt, L.A. (In press). Shyness, inhibitory control, and social support seeking in preschoolers: Role of familiar and unfamiliar contexts. Emotion.

Hassan, R., & Schmidt, L.A. (2022). Inhibitory control, dyadic social behavior, and mental health difficulties in preschoolers. Child Development, 93, e251-e265

Hassan, R., Poole, K.L., Lahat, A., Willoughby, T., & Schmidt, L.A. (2021). Approach-avoidance conflict and shyness: A developmental investigation. Developmental Psychology, 57, 814-823.

Hassan, R., & Schmidt, L.A. (2021). Trajectories of behavioral avoidance in real time: Associations with temperament and physiological dysregulation in preschoolers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 209, 1-14.

Hassan, R., Willoughby, T., & Schmidt, L.A. (2021). Shyness and prosocial tendencies during adolescence: Prospective influence of two types of self-regulation. Emotion, 21, 1721-1730.

Hassan, R., Willoughby, T., & Schmidt, L.A. (2021). Development of shyness across adolescence: Reactivity, regulation, or both? Developmental Psychology, 57, 421-431. 

Hassan, R., Poole, K.L., & Schmidt, L.A. (2020). Revisiting the double-edged sword of self-regulation: Linking shyness, attentional shifting, and social behavior in preschoolers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 196, 1-15. 

Khalesi, Z., Brook, C.A., Jetha, M.K., McNeely, H., Goldberg, J.O., & Schmidt, L.A. (2021). Revisiting shyness and sociability in schizophrenia: A psychometric examination of measurement invariance and mean level differences. Journal of Personality Assessment, 103, 833-841.

Kong, X., Brook, C.A., Zhong, J., Liu, J., & Schmidt, L.A. (2022). Are cross-cultural shyness comparisons valid? Testing invariance with multigroup CFA and the alignment method across eastern and western cultures. Psychological Assessment, 34, 271-280.

MacGowan, T.L., Mirabelli, J., Obhi, S.S., & Schmidt, L.A. (2022). Observed shyness leads to more automatic imitation in early childhood. Developmental Psychobiology, 64,  1-13.

MacGowan, T.L., Colonnesi, C., Nikolic, M., & Schmidt, L.A. (2022). Expressions of positive shyness and Theory of Mind in children: A psychophysiological study. Cognitive Development, 61, 1-15.

MacGowan, T.L., & Schmidt, L.A. (2021). Getting to the heart of childhood empathy: Relations with shyness and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Developmental Psychobiology, 63, 1-19.

MacGowan, T.L., & Schmidt, L.A. (2021). Helping as prosocial practice: Longitudinal relations among children’s shyness, helping behavior, and empathic response. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 209, 1-15.

MacGowan, T.L., & Schmidt, L.A. (2021). Preschoolers’ social cognitive development in the age of screen time ubiquity. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 24, 141-144.

Poole, K.L., Hassan, R., & Schmidt, L.A. (2022). Two-factor structure of social-evaluative fear in children: Distinguishing fear of positive and negative evaluation in social anxiety. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 44, 800-810.

Poole, K.L., Hassan, R., & Schmidt, L.A. (2021). Temperamental shyness, frontal EEG theta/beta ratio, and social anxiety in children. Child Development, 92, 2006-2019.

Poole, K.L., & Schmidt, L.A. (2021). While a shy child waits: Autonomic and affective responses during the anticipation and delivery of a speech. Emotion, 21, 1103-1113.

Poole, K. L., & Schmidt, L.A. (2021). Vigilant or avoidant? Children's temperamental shyness, patterns of gaze, and physiology during social threat. Developmental Science, 24, 1-13.

Poole, K.L., Saigal, S., Van Lieshout, R.J., & Schmidt, L.A. (2020). Developmental programming of shyness: A longitudinal, prospective study across four decades. Development and Psychopathology, 32, 455-464.

Poole, K.L., & Schmidt, L.A. (2020). Positive shyness in the brain: An examination of frontal EEG alpha asymmetry and delta-beta correlation in children. Child Development, 91, e1030-1045. 

Poole, K.L., & Schmidt, L.A. (2019). Smiling through the shyness: The adaptive function of positive affect in shy children. Emotion, 19, 160-170.

Tang, A., Lahat, A., Crowley, M.J., Wu, J., & Schmidt, L.A. (2021). Children’s shyness and neural responses to social exclusion: Patterns of midfrontal theta power usually not observed until adolescence. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 21, 1262-1275.

Tang, A., Lahat, A., Crowley, M.J., Wu, J., & Schmidt, L.A. (2019). Neurodevelopmental differences to social exclusion: An event-related neural oscillation study of children, adolescents, and adults. Emotion, 19, 520-532.

© Copyright 1997 - 2023. Louis A. Schmidt, Ph.D. (Maryland). All Rights Reserved.
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